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Financing of Secondary School Education in India: An Analytical Study

Sushila Singhal (Author) J L Azad (Author)
Synopsis Secondary education, sandwiched between the much acclaimed basic elementary education and the prestigious higher education, is subject to an ambivalent attitude on the part of the government as well as the general public. As pointed out by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (1996): “On the one hand, it (secondary education) is often regarded as the gateway to social and economic advancement. It is accused, on the other hand, of being inegalitarian and not sufficiently open to the outside world and, generally, failing to prepare adolescents not only for higher education but also for the world of work.” As a result of this unenviable and somewhat mutually contradictory position. This stage has failed to attract the attention of scholars and researches for undertaking meaningful and relevant investigations in this area. This study is a modest attempt to fill a part of this vacuum. It intends to study the system of financing and development of secondary education in India and a few selected Indian states. the main objectives are an analyse the behavior of finance in this important sector, the adequacy or otherwise of the financial investment in school education and the role of the central and state governments as also of the community in financing and management of school education. In order to make a realistic appraisal of the situation at the ground level, selected institutions in five states-Goa, Karnataka, Gujarat, Punjab and Rajasthan have been taken up for an in-depth investigation. The main areas of investigation are: student enrolment, examination results, sources of income and pattern of expenditure etc. Besides, the grant in aid rules formulated by the state governments have been subjected to a critical review. Measures adopted by educational institutions to mobilize additional resources have been sought to be ascertained. As a part of the study, school authorities were requested to mention, in details, the general, administrative and financial problems faced by them. Their views were also solicited about the manner in which these problems could be solved. The study incorporates the gist of the views of the school functionaries. It is hoped that the study will throw light on the vexed problems of secondary school finance and other related issues and enable educational administrators, planners and other concerned organizations to bring about required changes in their policies and procedures of financing and management of secondary education. It is also expected to engender interest among the prospective researchers to undertake more probing investigations in this important area of education.
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About the authors

Sushila Singhal

Professor Sushila Singhal has taught Social Psychology of Education at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, for more than 25 years, and has recently retired. She has been Professor at Shri Ram Centre for Industrial Relations and Human Resources, New Delhi, and also taught previously at the Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi. Professor Singhal has written and published extensively in numerous international and national journals, and has been the author of three books-Academic Leadership and Student Unrest; Banks and Customers-A Behavioral Analysis, & Senior Management-The Dynamics of Effectiveness.

J L Azad

Professor J.L. Azad was formerly Chief of Education Division, Planning Commission, with which he was associated for more than two decades. Thereafter, he worked as (visiting) Professor of Economics of Education in Sardar Patel University, (Gujarat) as also Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. He was also Senior Fellow(ICSSR) at the National institute of Educational Planning and Administration. He was also Director (Research Projects) at the Jawaharlal Nehru University. He was also a Fellow at the University of York in England. During his stay at the University of York, he made a comparative study of the system of financial management of higher education in India and the United Kingdom. Professor Azad has written extensively on problems of Indian Education. His main areas of interest are Educational Planning, Educational Finance, Educational Management, Economics of Education, Graduate unemployment etc. His published works include 16 books / monographs / research reports, 15 research papers and about 80 articles / studies in Educational / Research Journals in India ad abroad.

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Bibliographic information

Title Financing of Secondary School Education in India: An Analytical Study
Format Hardcover
Date published: 01.01.2003
Edition 1st ed.
Language: English
isbn 8186880283
length xvi+97p., Tables; Bibliogaphy; Index; 26cm.