Overview for Moulds and Mycotoxins in Poultry Diseases
During the last three decades poultry production has made a tremendous progress. The improved layer population have exceeded a million during 1961 to 67 million in 1986, which resulted in increased egg production from 360 million to 1425 million. Similarly the broiler production have achieved tremendous increase from 4 millions 1971 to 95 millions during 1986. This transition of poultry farming from a backyard rearing to a large-scale intensive poultry rearing with investment running into millions of rupees is due to embarking upon large scale import of germplasm and technical know how. However, during recent years to growth is not as high as it was for many unknown diseases have been faced by the poultry.
The recent years have shown that mycosis and mycotoxicosis have been assuming considerable importance in artiology of many unknown diseases in poultry. The fungi are ubiquitous in nature and there are frequent opportunities available in our Indian agro-climatic conditions for their growth during harvest and storage to elaborate their toxin. The problem of mycotoxicosis in the health of human and livestock has assumed a much importance, only after the outbreak of Turkey X disease during 1960.
The heavy economic losses faced by the in poultry industry either by death of birds or by production losses is due to the feeding of mouldy feed. The mycotoxicosis is also responsible for bruising in broilers thus lowering the carcass value, immuno-suppressive effects. Increase in the requirement of certain nutrients leading to deficiency syndrome, and finally the toxic metabolites are excreted through meat and eggs leading to human health hazards.
The problem of moulds and mycotoxicosis in poultry is a worldwide phenomenon and to understand the magnitude of mycotoxixosis problem in poultry, its biochemical, mechanism of action effects on different organs and their prevention, the present summer institute/short course has been designed in the form of lectures from eminent persons in that area, practical demonstrations and field visits. The lectures from eminent persons in that area, practical demonstrations and field visits. The lectures have been designed to provide general information general information on mycotoxins, its effect on poultry, and its control.